House Rules

The buy-in

  1. When you enter a game, you must make a buy-in of at least the minimum of the table.
  2. Adding to your stack is not considered a buy-in, and may  be done in any quantity (up to the table maximum) between hands.
  3. A player who is forced to transfer from a broken game or must-move game to a game of the same limit may continue to play the same amount of money, even if it is less than the minimum buy-in. A player switching games voluntarily must have the proper buy-in amount for the new game.
  4. A new player entering the game has the following options:
    1. Wait for the big blind.
    2. Post an amount equal to the big blind and immediately be dealt a hand.

Misdeals

  1. The following circumstances cause a misdeal, provided attention is called to the error before two players have acted on their hands. (If two players have acted in turn, the deal must be played to conclusion, as explained in rule #2).
    1. The first or second card of the hand has been dealt face-up or exposed through dealer error.
    2. Two or more cards have been exposed by the dealer.
    3. Two or more boxed cards (improperly faced cards) are found.
    4. Two or more extra cards have been dealt in the starting hands of a game.
    5. An incorrect number of cards have been dealt to a player, except the top card may be dealt if it goes to the player in proper sequence.
    6. Any card has been dealt out of the proper sequence (except an exposed card may be replaced by the burncard).
    7. The button was out of position.
    8. The first card was dealt to the wrong position.
    9. Cards have been dealt to an empty seat or player not entitled to a hand.
    10. A player has been dealt out who is entitled to a hand. This player must be present at the table or have posted a blind or ante.
    11. Once action occurs, a misdeal can no longer be declared. The hand will be played to conclusion, and no money will be returned to any player whose hand is fouled. In button games, action is considered to occur when two player after the blinds have acted on their hands.

Dead Hands

  1. Your hand is declared dead if:
    1. You fold or announced that you are folding when facing a bet or a raise.
    2. You throw your hand away in a forward motion causing another player to act after you (even if not facing a bet).
    3. The hand does not contain the proper number of cards for that particular game.
    4. You act on a hand with a joker as a holecard in a game not using a joker. (A player who acts on a hand without looking at a card assumes the liability of finding an improper card, as given in, irregularities, rule#8.)
    5. You are being timed, when facing a bet or raise and exceed the specified time limit.
    6. Cards thrown in the muck must be ruled dead.  We will make an extra effort to rule a hand retrievable if it was folded as a result of incorrect information given to the player. (Might lead to abuse.)
    7. Cards thrown into another player’s hand are dead, whether they are faceup or facedown.

Irregularities

  1. If it is discovered that the button was placed incorrectly on the previous hand, the button and blinds will be corrected for the new hand in a manner that gives every player one chance for each position on the round (if possible).
  2. You must protect your own hand at all times. Your cards may be protected with your hands, a chip, or other object placed on top of them. If you fail to protect your hand, you will have no redress if it becomes fouled or the dealer accidently kills it.
  3. If a card with a different colour back appears during a hand, all action is void and all chips in the pot are returned to the respective bettors.
  4. If two cards of the same rank and suit are found, all action is void, and all chips in the pot are returned to the players who wagered them (subject to next rule).
  5. A player who knows the deck is defective has an obligation to point this out. If such a player instead tries to win a pot by taking aggressive action (trying for a freeroll), the player may lose the right to a refund, and the chips may be required to stay in the pot for the next deal.
  6. If there is extra money in the pot on a deal as a result of forfeited money from the previous deal (as per rule #5), or some similar reason, only a player dealt in on the previous deal is entitled to a hand.
  7. A card discovered faceup in the deck (boxed card) will be treated as a meaningless scrap of paper. A card being treated as a scrap of paper will be replaced by the next card below it in the deck, except when the next card has already been dealt facedown to another player and mixed in with other downcards. In that case, the card was faceup in the deck will be replaced after all other cards are dealt for that round.
  8. A joker that appears in a game where it is not used is treated as a scrap of paper. Discovery of a joker does not cause a misdeal. If a joker is discovered before a player acts on his or her hand, it is replaced as in the previous rule. If the player does not call attention to the joker before acting, then the player has a dead hand.
  9. If you play on a hand without looking at all of your cards, you assume the liability of having an irregular card or an improper joker.
  10. One or more cards missing from the deck does not invalidate the results of a hand.
  11. If a dealer deals one action card before the first round of betting, it is returned to the deck and used as a burncard.
  12. Procedure for an exposed card varies with the poker form, and is given in the section for each game. A card that is flashed by a dealer is treated as an exposed card.
  13. A card that is flashed by a player will play. To obtain a ruling on whether a card was exposed and should be replaced, a player should announce that the card was flashed or exposed before looking at it. A downcard dealt off the table is an exposed card.
  14. If a card is exposed due to dealer error, a player does not have an option to take or reject the card. The situation will be governed by the rules for the particular game being played.
  15. If you drop any cards out of your hand onto the floor, you must still play them or fold.
  16. If the dealer fails to burn a card or burns more than one card, the error should be corrected if discovered before betting action has started for that round. Once action has been taken on a boardcard, the card must stand. Whether the error is able to be corrected or not, subsequent cards dealt should be those that would have come if no error hand occurred. For example, if two cards were burned, one of the cards should be put back on the deck and used for the burncard on the next round. On the last round, if there was no betting because a player was all-in, the error should be corrected if discovered before the pot has been awarded, provided the deck stub, boardcards, and burncards are all sufficiently intact to determine the proper replacement card.
  17. If the dealer prematurely deals any cards before the betting is complete, those cards will not play, even if a player who has not acted decides to folds.
  18. If the deck stub gets fouled for some reason, such as the dealer believing the deal is over and dropping the deck, the deal must still be played out, and the deck reconstituted in as fair a way as possible.

Betting and raising

  1. Check-raise is permitted in all games.
  2. In no-limit and pot-limit games, unlimited raising is allowed.
  3. Unlimited raising is allowed in heads-up play. This applies any time the action becomes heads-up before the raising has been capped. Once the raising is capped on a betting round, it cannot be uncapped by a subsequent fold that leaves two players heads-up.
  4. Any wager must be at least the amount of the previous bet or raise in that round, unless a player is going all-in.
  5. The smallest chip that may be wagered in a game is the smallest chip used in the antes, blinds, rake or collection. (Certain games may use a special rule that does not allow chips used only in house revenue to play.) Smaller chips than this do not play even in quantity, so a player wanting action on such chips must change them up between deals. A player going all-in must put all chips that play into the pot.
  6. A verbal statement denotes your action and is binding. If in turn you verbally declare a fold, check, bet, call, or raise, you are forced to take that action.
  7. Tapping the table with your hand is a check.
  8. Deliberately acting out of turn will not be tolerated. A player who checks out of turn may not bet or raise on the next turn to act. An action or verbal declaration out of turn may be ruled binding if there is no bet, call, or raise by any intervening player acting after the infraction has been committed.
  9. To retain the right to act, a player must stop the action by calling “time” (or an equivalent word). Failure to stop the action before two or more players have acted may cause you to lose the right to act. Therefore if you wait for someone whose turn comes before you, and two or more players act out of turn, this still does not hinder your right to act, but you are passive for that round only.
  10. A player who bets or calls by releasing chips into the pot is bound by that action and must make the amount of the wager correct. (This also applies right before the showdown when putting chips into the pot causes the opponent to show the winning hand before the full amount needed to call has been put into the pot.) However, if you are unaware that the pot has been raised, you may withdraw that money and reconsider your action, provided that no one else has acted after you. At pot-limit or no-limit betting, if there is a gross misunderstanding concerning the amount of the wager, see No Limit and Pot-Limit.
  11. String raises are not allowed. To protect your right to raise, you should either declare your intention verbally or place the proper amount of chips into the pot.
  12. In no-limit or pot-limit, a raise must be made by (1) placing the full amount in the pot in one motion; or (2) verbally declaring the full amount prior to the initial placement of chips into the pot; or (3) verbally declaring “raise” prior to the placement of the amount to call into the pot and then completing the action with one additional motion. It is the player's responsibility to make his intentions clear.
  13. A raise must be at least the size of the largest previous bet or raise of the current betting round.  If a player puts in a raise of 50% or more of the previous bet but less than the minimum raise, he or she must make a full raise. The raise will be exactly the minimum raise allowed. In no-limit and pot limit, an all-in wager of less than a full raise does not reopen the betting to a player who has already acted.
  14. In no-limit and pot-limit, all raises must be equal to or greater than the size of the previous bet or raise on that betting round. An allin
  15. wager of less than a full raise does not reopen the betting to a player who has already acted. Exception - two consecutive all-in
  16. wagers that exceed the minimum allowable bet or raise. By way of example, player A - bets 500, player B - raises to 1,000, player
  17. C - calls 1,000, player D - moves all-in for 1,300, player E - moves all-in for 1,700. If player A calls or folds, then players B & C will
  18. have an option to raise. The minimum allowable raise will be equal to the last complete raise. In this example, the last complete
  19. raise was 500; therefore, players B or C would be allowed to call 1,700 and raise 500 for a total wager of 2,200. (The half-the-size
  20. rule for reopening the betting is for limit poker only.)

Oversized Chip

  1. Anytime when facing a bet (or blind), placing a single oversized chip in the pot is a call if a raise is not first verbally declared. To raise with a single oversized chip, a declaration must be made before the chip hits the table surface. If a raise is declared (but not an amount), the raise is the maximum allowable for that chip. When not facing a bet, placing an oversized chip in the pot without declaration is a bet of the maximum allowable for the chip
  2. If you put a single chip in the pot that is larger than the bet, but do not announce a raise, you are assumed to have only called. Example: in a $3-$6 game, when a player bets $6 and the next player puts a $25 chip in the pot without saying anything, that player has merely called the $6 bet.
  3. All wagers and calls of an improper low amount must be brought up to proper amount if the error is discovered before the betting round has been completed. This includes actions such as betting a lower amount than the minimum bring-in (other than going all-in) and betting the lower limit on an upper limit betting round. If a wager is supposed to be made in a rounded off amount and is not it must be corrected, and be changed to the proper amount nearest in size. No one who has acted may change a call to a raise because the wager size has been changed.

The showdown

  1. To win any part of a pot, a player must show all of his cards faceup on the table, whether they were used in the final hand played or not.
  2. Cards speak (cards read for themselves). The dealer assists in reading hands, but players are responsible for holding onto their cards until the winner is declared. Although verbal declarations as to the contents of a hand are not binding, deliberately miscalling a hand with the intent of causing another player to discard a winning hand is unethical and may result in  forfeiture of the pot.
  3. Any player, dealer, or floorperson who sees an incorrect amount of chips being put into the pot, or an error about to be made in awarding a pot, has an ethical obligation to point out the error. Please help us keep mistakes of this nature to a minimum.
  4. All losing hands will be killed by the dealer before a pot is awarded.
  5. Any player, who has been dealt in, may request to see any hand that has been called, even if the opponent’s hand or the winning has been mucked. However, this is a privilege that may be revoked if abused. If a player other than the pot winner asks to see a losing player’s hand, both hands are live, and the best hand wins.
  6. Show one, show all. Players are entitled to receive equal access to information about the contents of another player’s hand. After a deal, if cards are shown to another player, every player at the table has a right to see those cards. During a deal, cards that were shown to an active player who might have a further wagering decision on that betting round must immediately be shown to all the other players. If the player who saw the cards is not involved in the deal, or cannot use the information in wagering, the information should be withheld until the betting is over, so it does not affect the normal outcome of the deal. Cards shown to a person who has no more waging decisions on that betting round, but might use the information on a later betting round, should be shown to the other players at the conclusion of that betting round. If only a portion of the hand has been shown to the other players at the conclusion of that betting round. If only a portion of the hand has been shown, there is no requirement to show any of the unseen cards. The shown cards are treated as given in the preceding part of this rule.
  7. If everyone checks (or is all-in), on the final betting round, the closest to the button clockwise is the first to show the hand. If there is wagering on the final betting round, the last player who made an aggressive action by a bet or raise is the first to show the hand. In order to speed up the game, a player holding a probable winner is encouraged to show the hand without delay. If there is a side pot, players involved in the side pot should show their hands before anyone who is all-in for only the main pot.In a muck  muck  situation the last player doesn't need to show his cards  to win the pot.

Ties

  1. The ranking of suits from highest to lowest is spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs. Suits never break a tie between cards of the same rank (no redeal or redraw).
  2. Dealing a card to each player is used to determine things like who moves to another table. If the cards are dealt, the order is clockwise starting with the first player on the dealer’s left (the button position is irrelevant). Drawing a card is used to determine things like who gets the button in a new game, or seating order coming from a broken game.
  3. An odd chip will be broken down to the smallest unit used in the game.
  4. No player may receive more than one odd chip.
  5. If two or more hands tie, an odd chip will be awarded as follows:
    1. The first hand clockwise from the button gets the odd chip.
    2. All side pots and the main pot will be split as separate pots, not mixed together.

Button and blind use


In button games, a non-playing dealer normally does the actual dealing. A round disk called the button is used to indicate which player has the dealer position. The player with the button is last to receive cards on the initial deal and has the right of last action after the first betting round. The button moves clockwise after a deal ends to rotate the advantage of last action. One or more blind bets are usually used to stimulate action and initiate play. Blinds are posted before the players look at their cards. Blinds are part of a player’s bet unless the structure of a game or the situation requires part or all of a particular blind to be “dead”. Dead chips are not part of a player’s bet. With two blinds, the small blind is posted by the player immediately clockwise from the button, and the big blind is posted by the player two positions clockwise from the button. With more than two blinds, the little blind is normally left of the button (not on it). Action is initiated on the first betting round by the first player to the left of the blinds. On all subsequent betting rounds, the action begins with the first active player to the left of the button.

 

Rules for using blinds

  1. The minimum bring-in and allowable raise sizes for the opener are specified by the poker form used and blind amounts set for a game. They remain the same even when the player in the blind does not have enough chips to post the full amount.
  2. Each round every player must get an opportunity for the button, and meet the total amount of the blind obligations. Either of the following methods of button and blind placement may be designate to do this:
    1. Moving button- the button always moves forward to the next player and the blinds adjust accordingly. There may be more than one big blind.
    2. Dead button – the big blind is posted by the player due for it, and the small blind and button are positioned accordingly, even if this means the small blind or the button is placed in front of an empty seat, giving the same player the privilege of last action on consecutive hands.
  3. A player posting a blind in the game’s regular structure has the option of raising the pot at the first turn to act. Although chips posted by the big blind are considered a bet, this option to raise is retained if someone goes all-in with a wager of less than the minimum raise.
  4. In heads-up play with two blinds, the small blind is on the button.
  5. A new player who elects to let the button go by once without posting is not treated as a player in the game who has missed a blind, and needs to post only the big blind when entering the game.
  6. When you post the big blind, it serves as your opening bet. When it is your next turn to act, you have the option to raise.
  7. A player who misses any or all blinds can resume play by either posting all the blinds missed or waiting for the big blind. If you choose to post the total amount of the blinds, an amount up to the size of the minimum opening bet is live. The remainder is taken by the dealer to the centre of the pot and is not part of you bet. When it is your next turn to act, you have the option to raise.
  8. If a player who owes a blind (as a result of a missed blind) is dealt in without posting, the hand is dead if the player looks at it before putting up the required chips, and has not, yet acted. If the player acts on the hand and plays, putting chips into the pot before the error is discovered, the hand is live, and the player is required to post on the next deal.
  9. These rules about blinds apply to a newly started game:
    1. Any player who drew for the button is considered active in the games and is required to make up any missed blinds.
    2. A new player will not be required to post a blind until the button has made one complete revolution around the table, provided a blind has not yet passed that seat.
    3. A player may change seats without penalty, provided a blind has not yet passed the new seat.
  10. In all multiple-blind games, a player who changes seats will be dealt in on the first available hand in the same relative position. Example: if you move two active positions away from the big blind, you must wait two hands before being dealt in again. If you move closer to the big blind, you can be dealt in without any penalty. If you do not wish to wait and have not yet missed a blind, then you can post an amount equal to the big blind and receive a hand.
  11. A player who “deals off” (by playing the button and then immediately getting up to change seats) can allow the blinds to pass the new seat one time and re-enter the game behind the button without having to post a blind.
  12. One live “straddle bet” is allowed.
  13. Seating assignment will be determined by random draw and will not be transferable.
  14. A draw for the button will be held on one table at the beginning of the tournament and once more at the final table.
  15. There will be no foreign chips allowed at the table.

Betting will be in clockwise order and:

  1. Players must be in their seat when the dealer finishes the deal. If the player is not in his/her seat then the dealer will muck their hand immediately.
  2. When time has elapsed in a round and a new round is announced, the new limits apply to the next hand. A hand has begun with the first shuffle.
  3. If two or more players are eliminated at the same table, the player with the higher chip count will receive higher finishing place. During regular play, if two or more players are eliminated at separate tables, they will be assigned a finishing place based on the order of his/her elimination. In the event it is impossible to determine the order of elimination, they will equally split the prizes involved. During “Hand for Hand” play, if two or more players are eliminated at separate tables, they will split the prizes equally.
  4. A player can be issued the following penalties:
    1. Verbal warning
    2. Missed hand penalty
    3. Have a hand declared dead
    4. Disqualification
    5. Elimination

A missed hand penalty will be assessed as follows: at the beginning of the next hand, the offender will be required to miss one hand for every player (including the offender) who is at the table. A floor supervisor can assess a one-, two-, three-, or four-round penalty (For example: 7 players x3 rounds = 21 missed hands). While on a penalty, the offender must remain away from the table. Repeated infractions are subject to escalating penalties.

Note: at If a player is moved while on a penalty, he/she will sit-out the remainder of the penalty at the new table. This action may require a player to miss and pay more than one set of blinds.

 

Four-card flop

  1. If the flop contains four (rather than three) cards, whether exposed or not, the dealer shall scramble the 4 cards face down. A floor person will be called to randomly select one card to be used as the next burn card and the remaining three cards will become the flop.
  2. Prior to completion of the betting, a card exposed in error by the dealer will be shuffled back into the remaining live deck, this applies to the first card of the flop, turn, and river cards.
  3. If the first card of the flop has been dealt before the live blind has been given the opportunity to raise, the following rules will apply:
    1. That card will be shuffled back into the remaining live deck.
    2. If two or three cards have been dealt then the flop will stand and the live blind will not be allowed to raise.
    3. A player exposing a card in error will not be penalised from betting.
    4. A player who exposes a card immediately after making a bet will have his bet returned and will be penalised for the remainder of the hand. (By not being allowed to make any aggressive action.)
    5. Where a player exposes a card after betting in a multi way pot and causes another player to act, the bet will stand. This player will be penalised for the remainder of the hand. (see above penalty)
    6. A player who makes a bet that is not called, wins the pot, a player that decides for himself (incorrectly) that he/she has no hand to beat, and throws his/her hand or any part of it into the muck forfeits the pot to the highest live hand against them.

General Rules

  1. The printed line around the table between the player and the dealer will be known as the “action line”. Any action that takes place over this line by the player is binding; this includes any action of cards or chips.
  2. The supervisor has the right to try and reconstruct a hand and award the pot to the rightful player if required.
  3. The house has the right to prohibit any two players from playing in the same game.
  4. The supervisor may at any time ask a spectator to move away from the table.
  5. Spectators may not sit behind player, and must never involve themselves in the game in any way.
  6. The house has a right to request a standard of dress, language and behaviour as per the house rules befitting the environment.
  7. Note: After this and for more serious offences the casino manager may make the decision to remove the player from the casino, and that player then risks removal of their membership.

Poker is an individual (not a team) game. Any action or chat intended to help another player is unethical and is prohibited. Unethical play, such as soft-play (playing less aggressively against a partner) and chip dumping (intentionally losing chips to a partner), may result in penalties.

 

Prizes and entries are non-transferable. Prize structures depend on the number of entrants and type of event.

 

  1. Cheating is defined by any act a person engages in, to break the established rules of play to gain an advantage.
  2. Cheating includes, but is not limited to, acts such as: collusion; chip stealing; transferring non-value tournament chips from one event to another; card making; card substitution or the use of any kind of cheating device.
  3. Collusion is defined as any agreement amongst two or more players to engage in illegal or unethical acts against other players.
  4. Collusion includes, but is not limited to, acts such as: chip dumping; soft play; sharing card information with another player; sending or receiving signals from or to another player; the use of electronic communication with the intent to facilitate collusion; and any other acts that are deemed inappropriate.

Tournament and satellite seats will be randomly assigned. Tournament staff reserves the right to relocate players from their assigned seat to accommodate players based on special needs, and to balance tables at the start of the tournament.

 

 

General Concepts

 

Floor People


Floor people are to consider the best interest of the game and fairness as the top priority in the decision-making process. Unusual circumstances can on occasion dictate that decisions in the interest of fairness take priority over the technical rules. The floor person’s decision is final.

 

Official Language

 

The English-only rule will be enforced during the play of hands in our regular tournaments and cashgames  Languages during international events vary depending which company or circuit is organizing the event.

 

Breaking Tables

 

Players going from a broken table, to fill in seats assume the rights and responsibilities of the position. They can get the big blind, the small blind, or the button. The only place they cannot get a hand is between the small blind and the button.

 

Balancing Tables

 

When balancing tables, players will be moved from the big blind to the worst position, including taking a single big blind when available, even if that means the seat will have the big blind twice. Worst position is never the small blind. The table from which a player is moved will be as specified by a predetermined procedure.

 

Declarations

 

Cards speak. Verbal declarations as to the content of a player’s hand are not binding; however, any player deliberately miscalling his/her hand may be penalized.

 

Killing Winning Hand

 

Dealers cannot kill a winning hand that was tabled and was obviously the winning hand. Players are encouraged to assist in reading tabled hands if it appears that an error is about to be made.

 

Side Pots

 

Each side pot will be split separately.

 

Playing the Board

 

A player must show both cards when playing the board in order to get part of the pot.

 

Chip Race

 

When it is time to color-up chips, they will be raced off with a maximum of one chip going to any player. The chip race will start in the No.1 seat. A player cannot be raced out of a tournament: a player who loses his or her remaining chip(s) in a chip race will be given one chip of the smallest denomination still in play. Players are encouraged to witness the chip race.

 

Deck Changes

 

Deck changes will be on the dealer push or level changes or as prescribed by the house. Players may not ask for deck changes.

 

New Limits

 

When time has elapsed in a round and a new level is announced by a member of the tournament staff, the new level applies to the next hand. A hand begins with the first riffle. If an automatic shuffler is being used, the hand begins when the green button is pushed.

 

Re-buy

 

A player may not miss a hand. If a player announces the intent to re-buy before a new hand, that player is playing chips behind and is obliged to make the re-buy.

 

Calling for a Clock

 

Once a reasonable amount of time has passed and a clock is called for, a player will be given a maximum of one minute to make a decision. If action has not been taken before time expires, there will be a 10-second countdown. If a player has not acted by the time the countdown is over, the player’s hand will be dead.

 

Action Pending

 

A player must remain at the table if he has a live hand.

 

Button in Heads-up

 

In heads-up play, the small blind is on the button and acts first. When beginning heads-up play, the button may need to be adjusted to ensure no player takes the big blind twice in a row.

 

Pot Size

 

Players are entitled to be informed of the pot size in pot-limit games only. Dealers will not count the pot in limit and no-limit games.

 

Chips on the Table

 

Players must keep their higher denomination chips visible and identifiable at all times.

 

Chips in Transit

 

Players may not hold or transport tournament chips in any manner that takes them out of view. A player who does so will forfeit the chips and will face disqualification. The forfeited chips will be taken out of play.

 

Unprotected Hands

 

If a dealer kills an unprotected hand, the player will have no redress and will not be entitled to a refund of bets. However, if a player had raised and the raise had not yet been called, the raise will be returned to the player.

Exposing Cards

A player exposing a card in error will not be penalized from betting (except in the two rules below).

 

  1. A player who exposes a card immediately after making bet will be penalized for the remainder of the hand.
  2. Where a player exposes a card after betting in a multi-way pot and heads-up and causes another player to act, the bet will stand. This player will be penalized for the remainder of the hand.

 

Etiquette Violations

 

Repeated etiquette violations will result in penalties. Examples include, but are not limited to, unnecessarily touching other players’ cards or chips, delay of the game, repeatedly acting out of turn or excessive chatter offend dealers and players.

  1. The hand will be deemed to have started when the first card is dealt.
  2. Cards should remain in view at all times and must never be below the table top, cards should not be obscured so as to confuse other players as to whether or not they are in play.
  3. Each player is responsible for his/her own cards, and must take precautions to ensure they are not removed from play. A player is deemed to have passed/folded his/her cards if:
    1. The player makes a statement that he /she is passing/ folding.
    2. The cards have crossed the action line.
  4. “Rabbit hunting” is not allowed, looking at mucked cards, burned cards or card that have yet to be dealt is strictly forbidden.
  5. Oracle Casino reserves the right to amend these rules as and when necessary.